In 1820, when James Monroe ran for his second term unopposed, one dissatisfied
elector cast his ballot for John Quincy Adams, even though he was not a declared candidate
for President. (Three other electors abstained, denying Monroe a unanimous victory by four
votes.) 156 years later, in
1976, one Republican elector voted for Ronald Reagan instead of the party’s candidate, incumbent President Gerald Ford.
Copyright © 2000, 2008 by Richard Warren Field